Covid 19 Vaccine Quick Fact Sheet


Samuel Nubile

Recently, the FDA approved two Covid-19 vaccines for distribution in the United States. Here’s what you need to know: 


  1. The two vaccines approved for emergency release were produced by Pfizer pharmaceuticals and Moderna. The FDA approved the vaccines by granting them “Emergency Use Authorization,” which speeds up the approval process. 
  2. Both vaccines are mRNA vaccines, which are a new type of vaccine used to protect against infectious diseases. They teach human cells to make a protein that triggers an immune response inside the bodies, thus creating antibodies. Unlike typical vaccines, such as the flu vaccine, weakened forms of the virus are not used. 
  3. Two doses of the vaccine are required for the Pfizer vaccine, twenty-one days apart. The Moderna vaccine is given in two doses, one month apart. While it has not yet been determined how long immunity will last, it is estimated that the American public will need to be vaccinated every two years. 
  4. In clinical trials, most side effects were mild to moderate for both vaccines. Among both, side effects were more common after the second dose of the vaccine. 
  5. Based on evidence from clinical trials, the Pfizer vaccine was about 95% effective. The Moderna vaccine is claimed to be 94.1% effective. 




  • About 95% effective, according to clinical trials. 
  • Require doses, given anywhere from 21 days to one month apart. 
About 94.1% effective, according to clinical trials. 
  • The Pfizer vaccine needs to be kept extremely cold at -70 degrees celsius, which is colder than a winter in Antarctica. This requires a special freezer. 
  • There are limited doses available at first. The CDC has recommended a set of protocols to determine who “takes priority” in getting the vaccine. 
  1. Healthcare Workers
  2. The elderly and “at-risk” population, including people living in long-term care homes. 
  3. Children and other front-line workers.
  4. General Public 
  • The Moderna vaccine can be kept in a conventional refrigerator until use. 
  • Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials included the following makeup: 
  • 81.9% white 
  • 26.2% Latino/Hispanic
  • 9.8% African American
  • 4.4% Asian

*Among participants, 50.6% were male and 49.4% were female.* 

  • Both vaccines utilize mRNA technology. 
  • A 29 year old male from Seattle named Ian Haydon experienced severe side effects from the Moderna vaccine during clinical trials. Symptoms included a fever of 103 degrees and a trip to the hospital.